SEQUENCE - Cryogenic 3D Nanoelectronics

© IBM Research
IBM Q Quantum Computer

Quantum computers are predicted to strongly impact fields such as medicine, chemistry. State-of-the-art quantum computers currently use long cables to connect room temperature biasing, readout, and control electronics. Highly scalable quantum computers require cryogenic electronics (< 4 K) with a wide array of functionalities, operating under extremely low noise conditions with limited power budgets.

The SEQUENCE project will address this, providing a versatile platform with a combination of Silicon and III-V technology, which will enable quantum computers to demonstrate improved scalability, higher performance and reduced costs.

Fraunhofer IAF is in charge of three important parts of the project:

We contribute our expertise in the field of particularly low-noise cryogenic electronics. We develop and compare two technologies developed at IAF for application in quantum computers: cryogenic MOSHEMT and HEMT MMICs with extremely low noise and low power consumption

Furthermore, we are working on the 3D integration of low-noise amplifiers and switches. 3D integration reduces the chip size and results in lower losses due to shorter interconnection of the individual components. This is ideal for applications in quantum computers, since the area that needs to be cooled cryogenically should be as small as possible and 3D integration promises better scalability of quantum computers.

Thirdly, we take care of the characterization of the electronics, which is an essential prerequisite for both technology evaluation and design. Since there are no commercially available complete measuring stations for measurements under cryogenic conditions, the precise characterization in the low temperature range is a great challenge.  At Fraunhofer IAF measuring stations are available for cryo-on-wafer measurements up to an ambient temperature of 6 K and a frequency of 50 GHz.


SEQUENCE – Cryogenic 3D Nanoelectronics



2020 − 2022


European Union - Horizon 2020


Lund University


  • Improvement of HEMT technology for cryogenic conditions with a slope of more than 1 S/mm at a supply voltage of 0.1 V and a maximum current of 50 mA/mm
  • Improving the noise temperature of amplifiers at 5 GHz with reduced power consumption. The target values are a noise temperature of less than 2 K at a power consumption of less than 3 mW
  • Development of an array with at least four low-noise amplifiers in combination with 3D integration of amplifiers and RF switches


This project is receiving support by the European Union under grant agreement number 871764.

Further information

Fraunhofer IAF

Quantum computing

All information about our research on quantum computing can be found here.

Fraunhofer IAF

Electronic circuits

We develop transistors, monolithic integrated circuits (ICs) and modules for a wide range of applications.


Project Video

Here you can find a short video about SEQUENCE by Lund University on their Youtube channel: